Ferrari S.p.A. is a sports car manufacturer based in Maranello, Italy. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1929 as Scuderia Ferrari,
the company sponsored drivers and manufactured race cars before moving
into production of street-legal vehicles in 1947 as Ferrari S.p.A.. Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing, especially in Formula One, where it has enjoyed great success.
nzo Ferrari never intended to produce road cars when he had formed
Scuderia Ferrari (literally "Ferrari Stable", and usually used to mean
"Team Ferrari", it is correctly pronounced "skoo deh REE ah") in 1929 as a sponsor for amateur drivers headquartered in Modena. Ferrari prepared and successfully raced various drivers in Alfa Romeo cars until 1938, when he was hired by Alfa Romeo to head their motor racing department.
In 1941, Alfa Romeo was confiscated by the Fascist government of Benito Mussolini as part of the Axis Powers'
war effort. Enzo Ferrari's division was small enough to be unaffected
by this. Because he was prohibited by contract from racing for four
years, the Scuderia briefly became Auto Avio Costruzioni Ferrari, which ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. Also known as SEFAC (Scuderia Enzo Ferrari Auto Corse), Ferrari did in fact produce one race car, the Tipo 815, in the non-competition period. It was the first actual Ferrari car (it debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia),
but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari
factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since. The
factory was bombed by the Allies in 1944 and rebuilt in 1946, after the war ended, and included a works for road car production. Until Il Commendatore's death, this would remain little more than a source of funding for his first love, racing.The first Ferrari road car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine; Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built and sold his automobiles to fund Scuderia Ferrari.
While his beautiful and fast cars quickly gained a reputation for
excellence, Enzo maintained a famous distaste for his customers.
In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death later that year, and arguably one of the most famous supercars ever made.
On May 17, 2009 in Maranello, Italy, a 1957 250 Testa Rossa (TR) was auctioned, by RM Auctions and Sotheby's, for $12.1 Million - a world record for the most expensive car ever sold at an auction. Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has been involved in motorsport, competing in a range of categories including Formula One and Sports car racing through its Scuderia Ferrari sporting division as well as supplying cars and engines to other teams.
The 1940 AAC 815
was the first racing car to be designed by Enzo Ferrari, although it
was not badged as a Ferrari model. Currently, the Ferrari works team
only compete in Formula One, and is the only team to have competed in the World Championship since its inception in 1950.In
n 1949, Luigi Chinetti drove a 166 M to Ferrari's first win in motorsports, the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Ferrari went on to dominate the early years of the World Sportscar Championship which was created in 1953, winning the title seven out of its first nine years.
When the championship format changed in 1962, Ferrari earned titles in at least one class each year through to 1965 and then again in 1967.) Ferrari would win one final title, the 1972 World Championship of Makes before Enzo decided to leave sports car racing after 1973 and allow Scuderia Ferrari to concentrate solely on Formula One.
During Ferrari's seasons of the World Sportscars Championship, they also gained more wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with the factory team earning their first in 1954. Another win would come in 1958, followed by five consecutive wins from 1960 to 1964. Luigi Chinetti's North American Racing Team (NART) would take Ferrari's final victory at Le Mans in 1965.
Although Scuderia Ferrari no longer participated in sports cars
after 1973, they have occasionally built various successful sports cars
for privateers. These include the BB 512 LM in the 1970s, the 333 SP which won the IMSA GT Championship in the 1990s, and currently the F430 GT2 and GT3 which are currently winning championships in their respective classes.
Scuderia Ferrari joined the Formula One World Championship in the first year of its existence,in 1950. José Froilán González gave the team its first victory at the 1951 British Grand Prix.
Alberto Ascari gave Ferrari its first Drivers Championship
a year later. Ferrari is the oldest team in the championship, and the
most successful: the team holds nearly every Formula One record. As of 2008, the team's records include 15 World Drivers Championship titles (1952, 1953, 1956, 1958, 1961, 1964, 1975, 1977, 1979, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2007) 16 World Constructors Championship titles (1961, 1964, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1982, 1983, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007 and 2008), 209 Grand Prix victories, 4925.27 points, 622 podium finishes, 203 pole positions, and 218 fastest laps in 776 Grands Prix contested.
Notable Ferrari drivers include Tazio Nuvolari, José Froilán González, Juan Manuel Fangio, Luigi Chinetti, Alberto Ascari, Wolfgang von Trips, Phil Hill, Olivier Gendebien, Mike Hawthorn, Peter Collins, Giancarlo Baghetti, John Surtees, Lorenzo Bandini, Ludovico Scarfiotti, Jacky Ickx, Mario Andretti, Clay Regazzoni, Niki Lauda, Carlos Reutemann, Jody Scheckter, Gilles Villeneuve, Didier Pironi, Patrick Tambay, René Arnoux, Michele Alboreto, Gerhard Berger, Nigel Mansell, Alain Prost, Jean Alesi, Eddie Irvine, Rubens Barrichello, Michael Schumacher, Kimi Räikkönen and Felipe Massa.
At the end of the 2006 season, the team courted controversy by continuing to allow Marlboro to sponsor them after they, along with the other F1 teams, made a promise to end sponsorship deals with tobacco manufacturers.
A five year deal was agreed and although this is not due to end until
2011, in April 2008 Marlboro dropped their on-car branding on Ferrari.
The drivers competing for 2009
were Felipe Massa and defending champion Kimi Räikkönen. Massa was
injured by a 1 kg suspension spring from the car of Rubens Barrichello
after second qualifying at the Hungarian Grand Prix, ending his season.
Upon being released from his contract at Force India, Giancarlo
Fisichella was announced as the driver deputising for Massa for the
rest of the 2009 season after Luca Badoer deputised for the injured
driver at the European and the Belgian Grand Prix. In 2010 Fernando
Alonso will start racing for Ferrari after racing for Renault and
Mclaren, filling Kimi Räikkönen's former seat.